[l2h] I'd like a way to have four Greek words displayed in a .html file produced by LaTeX2HTML without too much space between adjacent Greek letters.

Pat Somerville l_pat_s at hotmail.com
Thu Feb 14 03:34:05 CET 2013

Thanks, Nasser M. Abbasi and Lucio Chiappetti, for very kindly taking some 
time to write to me with your ideas concerning the problem of how to obtain 
Greek words without abnormal-looking spacing between pairs of letters in 
such words in a HyperText Markup Language (.hrml) file when viewed in a Web 
browser.  Nasser, your method of getting a Greek word into .html output 
using the computer program htlatex in a command of the form "htlatex 
TestFile.tex" gratefully worked for me, too.  I found that the .html output 
file it produced was located in the same directory as my test, .tex file. 
Apparently I already had the program htlatex installed in my openSUSE-12.2, 
Linux operating system.  Gratefully the reference numbering appeared equally 
good for me using either HTLatex (or htlatex) or LaTeX2HTML.  So thanks to 
you, Nasser, there is one working solution to getting a Greek word into a 
.html file.

Thanks, Lucio Chiappetti, for your idea of inputting hexadecimal (probably 
Unicode) codes for Greek letters, something you wrote that you did for at 
least some Cyrillic or Russian letters.  I have what I suppose might be a 
variant of your idea that gratefully worked for me.  The beginning of it is 
I suppose exactly the method you proposed.---Thanks for your reference to 
the main Unicode Web site with the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) of I think 
http://www.unicode.org/ on the Internet!  From 
http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0370.pdf I gratefully found the 
hexadecimal, Unicode Standard-6.2 codes for all of the Greek letters I 
wanted to use in my .html file.  So for the Greek word chronos, I think 
meaning time, and composed of the Greek letters \chi, \rho, omicron, \nu, 
omicron, and \varsigma, as all but omicron are entered into a LaTeX, .tex 
file (I think for omicron LaTeX may just use the letter "o" from the Latin 
or Roman alphabet used in the English language.), here are the hexadecimal 
codes for those Greek letters:

chi: 03C7
rho: 03C1
omicron: 03BF
nu: 03BD
again omicron: 03BF
varsigma: 03C2

Following the instructions at http://text-symbols.com/html/Unicode/, I 
edited the HTML (HyperText Markup Language) code of the .html file with a 
name of the form TestFile.html produced by a command of the form "latex2html 
....-html_version3.2.......... TestFile.tex".  In my case I opened the file 
with the name of the form TestFile.html in the text editor Kate in an 
openSUSE-12.2, Linux operating system and in the place where I wanted Greek 
words to appear entered their hexadecimal codes in the general manner 
indicated below for just one of the Greek words chronos:

English-language text here χρονος 
more English-language text here.

I paid no attention to the encoding of that .html file.  I think the usual 
case may be the 8-bit Uniform Transformation Format (UTF-8) encoding for 
files I often open in the text editor Kate in my openSUSE, Linux operating 
systems over the years.  I probably saved the edited file.  Then with that 
.html file open in my Konqueror Web browser I could gratefully see the Greek 
word chronos in Greek letters displayed on that Web page (If that file was 
already open in my Konqueror Web browser, then I may have clicked on the 
Konqueror Web browser border and then pressed the F5 key of my computer 
keyboard in order to refresh that Web page after making the changes to the 
HTML source code for that Web page.).

But from the way you have written, Lucio, I suppose that you might instead 
have somehow entered the hexadecimal codes for your Cyrillic letters in a 
.tex, LaTeX file and executed a "latex2html..... .tex" command on it to 
obtain the display of those Cyrillic characters in the .html output file of 
LaTeX2HTML.  Is this idea correct?  If that guess is correct, could you 
please include the relevant LaTeX commands which produced such a result for 

After reading portions of some Web pages written by other people, I tried in 
a few ways to have the combination of LaTeX and LaTeX2HTML produce Greek 
words in a .html file produced by LaTeX2HTML.  For example, in some 
situations I included commands of the following forms, but not all of them 
at the same time:
\usepackage[mathletters]{ucs}  (I found ucs.sty in the directory 
/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/ucs for LaTeX2HTML 1.71 and my version of LaTeX.)
\usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc}  (I found inputenc.sty in the directory 
/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/base for LaTeX2HTML 1.71 and my version of 
\char"03B2   (or)
\unicodechar{03B2} (or)


But despite my experimenting, I failed to see the Greek letters I wanted to 
see in a .html file produced by a "latex2html ........ .tex" command on a 
.tex file including one or more hexadecimal codes.  So if my guess of at 
least what you generally did in the past was correct and you can find what 
you did in the past with the Cyrillic letters in a .tex file, please help 
with a combination of LaTeX commands and correct syntaxes for them that 
yielded the display of Cyrillic letters in a .html file produced by 
LaTeX2HTML.  Aside from using different Unicode numbers for different 
characters, I would not expect the LaTeX procedure to use for Greek letters 
to be very different from the procedure you may have used with Cyrillic 
letters.  Thanks in advance for your searching for what you did in the past.


From: "Lucio Chiappetti" <lucio at lambrate.inaf.it>
Sent: Tuesday, February 12, 2013 4:58 AM
To: "Pat Somerville" <l_pat_s at hotmail.com>
Subject: Re: [l2h] I'd like a way to have four Greek words displayed in a 
.html file produced by LaTeX2HTML without too much space between adjacent 
Greek letters.

> On Tue, 12 Feb 2013, Pat Somerville wrote:
>> Hello. I would like to enter four Greek words into a .html (HyperText 
>> Markup Language) file produced by LaTeX2HTML that otherwise
> I use latexhtml very seldom, and I've never dealt with Greek or other 
> non-Latin alphabets in LaTeX, but this is more or less how I'll do it.
> I know there is a \latexonly environment in LaTeX2HTML ... I'm not sure 
> whether there is an \htmlonly or a conditional one (if latex do this if 
> html do that ... perhaps \latexhtml in conjunction with rawhtml ?). But 
> you should be able to look it up in the manual.
> I assume you know how to deal with the latex part (write word in greek). 
> My default would be to use math environment and letters like \alpha \beta 
> etc. Clumsy but should work.
> For the HTML part I'd use the &xhhhh; hexadecimal expressions of the greek 
> letters in Unicode (see www.unicode.org for the tables). I used this trick 
> to include cyrillic (russian) in some pages. Also clumsy but works for a 
> few words.
> -- 
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> Lucio Chiappetti - INAF/IASF - via Bassini 15 - I-20133 Milano (Italy)
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> Italian Research STILL at risk.  La Ricerca italiana TUTTORA a rischio !
> see http://sax.iasf-milano.inaf.it/~lucio/WWW/Opinions/nobrain3.html cfr

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