# [pdftex] pdflatex and algorithms package

Roberto Posenato roberto.posenato at univr.it
Sat Sep 10 10:02:28 CEST 2005

Hi everyone,

I would like to know if anyone has already seen the following algorithms
package
compilation problem with pdflatex.

*CURRENT CONFIGURATION*
--------------------------------
I'm writing a complicated book document where, I think, the problem
causes other problems.

To simplify the test, I modify the algorithm.tex file (below) of package
algorithms to reproduce the problem.

I use pdfeTeX, Version 3.141592-1.21a-2.2 (MiKTeX 2.4) (preloaded
format=latex 2005.9.9) extended mode

Algorithm package version is 2005/07/05.
Hyperref package version is 2003/11/30 v6.74m.

*THE PROBLEM*
-----------------
With the setting

pdflatex compiles without errors, but the Index contains links with
absolute page numbers and this is wrong because it is required to have
LaTeX (logical) page numbers!

With the setting

pdflatex compiles with errors:
'pdfTeX warning (ext4): destination with the same identifier
(name{ALC at rem.1}) has been already used, duplicate ignored'

There is a lot of such error... all regarding ALC at rem o ALC at line
counter.
But, the hyper links in the document work except the algorithm line links!

Any ideas?
Any suggestion will be appreciated!

Roberto

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

algorithm.tex
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

% ALGORITHMS for LaTeX version 2e
%
% Current maintainer: Rogério Brito <rbrito at ime.usp.br>
% Previous maintainer: Peter Williams <pwil3058 at bigpond.net.au>
%
% This document file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
% modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as
% published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the
%
% This document file is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
% WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Lesser
% General Public License for more details.
%
% You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
% along with this document file; if not, write to the Free Software
% Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307,
% USA.
%
\documentclass{book}

\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{lmodern}
\usepackage{tocbibind}
\usepackage{makeidx}\makeindex

%With the setting
%pdflatex compiles without errors, but the Index contains links with
%absolute page numbers, that are wrong!

%With the setting
%pdflatex compiles with errors:  'pdfTeX warning (ext4): destination
with the same identifier (name{ALC at rem.1})
%has been already used, duplicate ignored'
%The hyper links in the document work except the algorithm line link!

\usepackage[chapter]{algorithm}
\usepackage{algorithmic}

\title{Algorithms}
\author{Rogério Brito\\
\href{mailto:rbrito at ime.usp.br}{rbrito at ime.usp.br}\thanks{Sincere thanks
go to the original maintainer of this package, Peter Williams, and for
being kind enough to allow me to continue with his quite useful work.}}

\newcommand{\keyword}[1]{\texttt{#1}\index{#1}}
\newcommand{\filename}[1]{\texttt{#1}}
\newcommand{\latcom}[1]{\texttt{$\backslash$#1}}

\setcounter{tocdepth}{2}

\begin{document}
\frontmatter
\maketitle
\tableofcontents
non gestisce il TOC

\mainmatter
\chapter{Introduction}

This package provides two environments, \keyword{algorithmic} and
\keyword{algorithm}, which are designed to be used together but may,
depending on the necessities of the author, be used separately.

The \keyword{algorithmic} environment provides an environment for
describing algorithms and the \keyword{algorithm} environment provides a
float'' wrapper for algorithms (implemented using \keyword{algorithmic}
or some other method at the author's option).  The reason that two
environments are provided is to allow the author maximum flexibility.

This work may be distributed and/or modified under the conditions of the
Foundation (see the file \filename{COPYING} included in this package).
Currently, this package consists of three files: \filename{algorithm.sty},
\filename{algorithmic.sty} and \filename{algorithms.tex} (the source of
this document). This is likely to change in the near future.

Only to force the algorithm counter to reset in the second chapter, I
put an algorithm here!
\begin{algorithm}[h!]
\caption{Copy of Calculate $y = x^n$}
\label{alg3}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0 \vee x \neq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$n < 0$}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow 1 / x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow -n$
\ELSE
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\ENDIF
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}\label{alg:n-is-even2}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE\label{alg:n-is-odd2}
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{algorithm}

\chapter{The \keyword{algorithmic} Environment}
\label{sec:algorithmic-envir}
Within an \keyword{algorithmic} a number of commands for typesetting
popular algorithmic constructs are available.
In general, the commands provided can be arbitrarily nested to
describe quite complex algorithms.
An optional argument to the \verb+\begin{algorithmic}+ statement can be
used to turn on line numbering by giving a positive integer indicating the
required frequency of line numbering.
For example, \verb+\begin{algorithmic}[5]+ would cause every fifth line to
be numbered.

\section{The Simple Statement}

The simple statement takes the form
\begin{verbatim}
\STATE <text>
\end{verbatim}
and is used for simple statements, e.g.
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE $S \leftarrow 0$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would produce
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE $S \leftarrow 0$
\end{algorithmic}
and with line numbering selected for every line using
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $S \leftarrow 0$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would produce
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $S \leftarrow 0$
\end{algorithmic}
For users of earlier versions of \keyword{algorithmic} this construct is
a cause of an incompatibility.
In the earlier version, instead of starting simple statements with the
\verb+\STATE+
command, simple statements were entered as free text and terminated with
\verb+\\+ command.
Unfortunately, this simpler method failed to survive the modifications
necessary for statement numbering.
However, the \verb+\\+ command can still be used to force a line break
within
a simple statement.

\section{The \emph{if-then-else} Construct}

The \emph{if-then-else} construct takes the forms.
\begin{verbatim}
\IF{<condition>} <text> \ENDIF
\IF{<condition>} <text1> \ELSE <text2> \ENDIF
\IF{<condition1>} <text1> \ELSIF{<condition2>} <text2> \ELSE <text3> \ENDIF
\end{verbatim}
In the third of these forms there is no limit placed on the number
of \verb+\ELSIF{<C>}+ that may be used.
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\IF{some condition is true}
\STATE do some processing
\ELSIF{some other condition is true}
\STATE do some different processing
\ELSIF{some even more bizarre condition is met}
\STATE do something else
\ELSE
\STATE do the default actions
\ENDIF
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would produce
\begin{algorithmic}
\IF{some condition is true}
\STATE do some processing
\ELSIF{some other condition is true}
\STATE do some different processing
\ELSIF{some even more bizarre condition is met}
\STATE do something else
\ELSE
\STATE do the default actions
\ENDIF
\end{algorithmic}
with appropriate indentations.

\section{The \emph{for} Loop}

The \emph{for} loop takes the forms.
\begin{verbatim}
\FOR{<condition>} <text> \ENDFOR
\FORALL{<condition>} <text> \ENDFOR
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\FOR{$i=0$ to $10$}
\STATE carry out some processing \ENDFOR
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\FOR{$i=0$ to $10$}
\STATE carry out some processing  \ENDFOR
\end{algorithmic}
and
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\FORALL{$i$ such that $0\leq i\leq 10$}
\STATE carry out some processing \ENDFOR
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\FORALL{$i$ such that $0\leq i\leq 10$}
\STATE carry out some processing  \ENDFOR
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The \emph{while} Loop}

The \emph{while} loop takes the form.
\begin{verbatim}
\WHILE{<condition>} <text> \ENDWHILE
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\WHILE{some condition holds}
\STATE carry out some processing \ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\WHILE{some condition holds}
\STATE carry out some processing  \ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The \emph{repeat-until} Loop}

The \emph{repeat-until} loop takes the form.
\begin{verbatim}
\REPEAT <text> \UNTIL{<condition>}
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REPEAT
\STATE carry out some processing \UNTIL{some condition is met}
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\REPEAT
\STATE carry out some processing  \UNTIL{some condition is met}
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The Infinite Loop}

The infinite loop takes the form.
\begin{verbatim}
\LOOP <text> \ENDLOOP
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\LOOP
\STATE this processing will be repeated forever
\ENDLOOP
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\LOOP
\STATE this processing will be repeated forever
\ENDLOOP
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The Precondition}

The precondition (that must be met if an algorithm is to correctly
execute) takes the form:
\begin{verbatim}
\REQUIRE <text>
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $x \neq 0$ and $n \geq 0$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $x \neq 0$ and $n \geq 0$
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The Postcondition}

The postcondition (that must be met after an algorithm has correctly
executed) takes the form:
\begin{verbatim}
\ENSURE <text>
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\ENSURE $x \neq 0$ and $n \geq 0$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\ENSURE $x \neq 0$ and $n \geq 0$
\end{algorithmic}

\section{Returning Values}

The \keyword{algorithmic} environment offers a special statement for
explicitly returning values in algorithms. It has the syntax:
\begin{verbatim}
\RETURN <text>
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\RETURN $(x+y)/2$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\RETURN $(x+y)/2$
\end{algorithmic}

\section{Printing Messages}

Another feature of the \keyword{algorithmic} environment is that it
currently provides a standard way of printing values (which is an operation
used enough to merit its own keyword). It has the syntax:
\begin{verbatim}
\PRINT <text>
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\PRINT \texttt{Hello, World!''}
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\PRINT \texttt{Hello, World!''}
\end{algorithmic}

Comments may be inserted at most points in an algorithm using the form:
\begin{verbatim}
\COMMENT{<text>}
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE do something \COMMENT{this is a comment}
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE do something \COMMENT{this is a comment}
\end{algorithmic}
Because the mechanisms used to build the various algorithmic structures
make it difficult to use the above mechanism for placing comments at the
end of the first line of a construct, the commands \verb+\IF+,
\verb+\ELSIF+, \verb+\ELSE+, \verb+\WHILE+, \verb+\FOR+,
\verb+\FORALL+, \verb+\REPEAT+
and \verb+\LOOP+ all take an optional argument which will be treated
as a comment to be placed at the end of the line on which they appear.
For example,
\begin{algorithmic}
\REPEAT[this is comment number one]
\IF[this is comment number two]{condition one is met}
\STATE do something
\ELSIF[this is comment number three]{condition two is met}
\STATE do something else
\ELSE[this is comment number four]
\STATE do nothing
\ENDIF
\UNTIL{hell freezes over}
\end{algorithmic}

\section{An Example}

The following example demonstrates the use of the \keyword{algorithmic}
environment to describe a complete algorithm.  The following input
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE[$N$ is odd]
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
will produce
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE[$N$ is odd]
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
which is an algorithm for finding the value of a number taken to a
non-negative power.

\section{Options and Customization}

There is a single option, \keyword{noend}\label{kwd:noend} that may be
invoked when the \texttt{algorithmic} package is loaded.  With this option
invoked the \emph{end} statements are omitted in the output.  This allows
space to be saved in the output document when this is an issue.

\subsection{Changing Indentation}
\label{sec:changing-indentation}
In the spirit of saving vertical space (which is especially important when
submitting a paper for a journal, where space is frequently limited for
authors), the \keyword{algorithmic} environment offers, beginning with the
version released in 2005-05-08, a way to control the amount of indentation
that is used by a given algorithm.

The amount of indentation to be used is given by the command
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{indent=lenght}
\end{verbatim}
where \emph{length} is any valid length used by \TeX. The default value of
the indentation used by the \keyword{algorithmic} environment is $1$ em
(for backward compatibility reasons''), but a value of $2$ em or more is
recommended, depending on the publication. For example, the snippet
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{indent=2em}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $a \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$a$ is even}
\PRINT $a$ is even''
\ELSE
\PRINT $a$ is odd''
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\algsetup{indent=2em}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $a \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$a$ is even}
\PRINT $a$ is even''
\ELSE
\PRINT $a$ is odd''
\ENDIF
\end{algorithmic}
while
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{indent=5em}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $a \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$a$ is even}
\PRINT $a$ is even''
\ELSE
\PRINT $a$ is odd''
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would produce
\algsetup{indent=5em}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $a \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$a$ is even}
\PRINT $a$ is even''
\ELSE
\PRINT $a$ is odd''
\ENDIF
\end{algorithmic}
\algsetup{indent=1em}

The intended use of this option is to allow the author to omit the
\emph{end} (see Section~\ref{kwd:noend} for details) statements without
loosing readability, by increasing the amount of indentation to a suitable
level.

\subsection{Changing Line Numbering}

As mentioned in Section~\ref{sec:algorithmic-envir} and illustrated in
provides you with the possibility of numbering lines.

Starting with the version released in 2005-07-05, you can now change two
aspects of line numbering: the size of the line numbers (which, by default,
is \verb+\footnotesize+) and the delimiter used to separate the line number
from the code (which, by default, is \verb+:+, i.e., a colon).

You can change the size of the line numbers using the command:
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{linenosize=size}
\end{verbatim}
where \emph{size} is any of the various commands provided by \LaTeX\ to
change the size of the font to be used. Among others, useful values are
\verb+\tiny+, \verb+\scriptsize+, \verb+\footnotesize+ and \verb+\small+.

As another frequently requested feature, you can change the delimiter used
with the line numbers by issuing the command:
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{linenodelimiter=delimiter}
\end{verbatim}
where \emph{delimiter} is any well-formed'' string, including the empty
string. With this command, you can change the colon to a period (\verb+.+)
by issuing the command
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{linenodelimiter=.}
\end{verbatim}
or even omit the delimiter, by specifying the empty string or a space
(\verb+\ +), whatever seems best for your document.

As an example of such commands, the code produced by
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{linenosize=\small,
linenodelimiter=.}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $i \leftarrow 10$
\RETURN $i$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would be something like
\algsetup{linenosize=\small,
linenodelimiter=.}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $i \leftarrow 10$
\RETURN $i$
\end{algorithmic}
\algsetup{linenosize=\footnotesize,
linenodelimiter=:}

\subsection{Customization}

In order to facilitate the use of this package with foreign languages, all
of the words in the output are produced via redefinable macro commands.
The default definitions of these macros are:
\begin{verbatim}
\newcommand{\algorithmicrequire}{\textbf{Require:}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicensure}{\textbf{Ensure:}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicend}{\textbf{end}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicif}{\textbf{if}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicthen}{\textbf{then}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicelse}{\textbf{else}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicelsif}{\algorithmicelse\ \algorithmicif}
\newcommand{\algorithmicendif}{\algorithmicend\ \algorithmicif}
\newcommand{\algorithmicfor}{\textbf{for}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicforall}{\textbf{for all}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicdo}{\textbf{do}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicendfor}{\algorithmicend\ \algorithmicfor}
\newcommand{\algorithmicwhile}{\textbf{while}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicendwhile}{\algorithmicend\ \algorithmicwhile}
\newcommand{\algorithmicloop}{\textbf{loop}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicendloop}{\algorithmicend\ \algorithmicloop}
\newcommand{\algorithmicrepeat}{\textbf{repeat}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicuntil}{\textbf{until}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicprint}{\textbf{print}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicreturn}{\textbf{return}}
\end{verbatim}

argument command macro which may also be redefined.
The default definition is
\begin{verbatim}
\newcommand{\algorithmiccomment}[1]{\{#1\}}
\end{verbatim}
and another option that may be interesting for users familiar with C-like
languages is to redefine the comments to be
\begin{verbatim}
\renewcommand{\algorithmiccomment}[1]{//#1}
\end{verbatim}

Comments produced this way would be like this:
\renewcommand{\algorithmiccomment}[1]{//#1}
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE $i \leftarrow i +1$ \COMMENT{Increments $i$}
\end{algorithmic}
This second way to present comments may become the default in a future
version of the package.

\section{The \keyword{algorithm} Environment}

\subsection{General}
\begin{algorithm}
\caption{Calculate $y = x^n$}
\label{alg1}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0 \vee x \neq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$n < 0$}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow 1 / x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow -n$
\ELSE
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\ENDIF
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE[$N$ is odd]
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{algorithm}

When placed within the text without being encapsulated in a floating
environment \texttt{algorithmic} environments may be split over a page
boundary greatly detracting from their appearance.
In addition, it is useful to have algorithms numbered for reference
and for lists of algorithms to be appended to the list of contents.
The \texttt{algorithm} environment is meant to address these concerns
by providing a floating environment for algorithms.
For example, the input text
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithm}
\caption{Calculate $y = x^n$}
\label{alg1}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0 \vee x \neq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$n < 0$}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow 1 / x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow -n$
\ELSE
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\ENDIF
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE[$N$ is odd]
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{algorithm}
\end{verbatim}
produces Algorithm~\ref{alg1} which is a slightly modified version of
the earlier algorithm for determining the value of a number taken to an
integer power.
In this case, provided the power may be negative provided the number is
not zero.

The command \verb+\listofalgorithms+ may be used to produce a list
of algorithms as part of the table contents as shown at the beginning of
this document.
An auxiliary file with a suffix of \texttt{.loa} is produced when this
feature is used.

\subsection{Options}

The appearance of the typeset algorithm may be changed by use of the
options: \texttt{plain}, \texttt{boxed} or \texttt{ruled} during the
The default option is \texttt{ruled}.

The numbering of algorithms can be influenced by providing the name of
the document component within which numbering should be recommenced.
The legal values for this option are: \texttt{part}, \texttt{chapter},
\texttt{section}, \texttt{subsection}, \texttt{subsubsection}
or \texttt{nothing}.
The default value is \texttt{nothing} which causes algorithms to be
numbered sequentially throughout the document.

\subsection{Customization}

In order to facilitate the use of this package with foreign languages,
methods have been provided to facilitate the necessary modifications.

The title used in the caption within \texttt{algorithm} environment
can be set by use of the standard \verb+\floatname+ command which is
provided as part of the \texttt{float} package which was used to
implement this package.
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\floatname{algorithm}{Procedure}
\end{verbatim}
would cause \textbf{Procedure} to be used instead of \textbf{Algorithm}
within the caption of algorithms.

In a manner analogous to that available for the built in floating
environments, the heading used for the list of algorithms may be changed
by redefining the command \verb+listalgorithmname+.
The default definition for this command is
\begin{verbatim}
\newcommand{\listalgorithmname}{List of Algorithms}
\end{verbatim}

\section{Labels and References in Algorithms}

With the release of 2005-07-05, now \keyword{algorithmic} accepts labels
and references to specific lines of a given algorithm, so you don't have to
hardcode the line numbers yourself when trying to explain what the code
does in your texts.  Thanks to Arnaud Legrand for the suggestion and patch
for this highly missed feature.

An example of its use is shown in Algorithm~\ref{alg2}.
\begin{algorithm}[h!]
\caption{Calculate $y = x^n$}
\label{alg2}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0 \vee x \neq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$n < 0$}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow 1 / x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow -n$
\ELSE
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\ENDIF
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}\label{alg:n-is-even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE\label{alg:n-is-odd}
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{algorithm}
See that, in line~\ref{alg:n-is-even}, we deal with the case of $N$ being
even, while, in line~\ref{alg:n-is-odd}, we give treatment to the case of
$N$ being odd.

\backmatter
\printindex

\end{document}

% ALGORITHMS for LaTeX version 2e
%
% Current maintainer: Rogério Brito <rbrito at ime.usp.br>
% Previous maintainer: Peter Williams <pwil3058 at bigpond.net.au>
%
% This document file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
% modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as
% published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the
%
% This document file is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
% WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
% MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Lesser
% General Public License for more details.
%
% You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
% along with this document file; if not, write to the Free Software
% Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307,
% USA.
%
\documentclass{book}

\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{lmodern}
\usepackage{tocbibind}
\usepackage{makeidx}\makeindex

%With the setting
%pdflatex compiles without errors, but the Index contains links with
%absolute page numbers, that are wrong!

%With the setting
%pdflatex compiles with errors:  'pdfTeX warning (ext4): destination
with the same identifier (name{ALC at rem.1})
%has been already used, duplicate ignored'
%The hyper links in the document work except the algorithm line link!

\usepackage[chapter]{algorithm}
\usepackage{algorithmic}

\title{Algorithms}
\author{Rogério Brito\\
\href{mailto:rbrito at ime.usp.br}{rbrito at ime.usp.br}\thanks{Sincere thanks
go to the original maintainer of this package, Peter Williams, and for
being kind enough to allow me to continue with his quite useful work.}}

\newcommand{\keyword}[1]{\texttt{#1}\index{#1}}
\newcommand{\filename}[1]{\texttt{#1}}
\newcommand{\latcom}[1]{\texttt{$\backslash$#1}}

\setcounter{tocdepth}{2}

\begin{document}
\frontmatter
\maketitle
\tableofcontents
non gestisce il TOC

\mainmatter
\chapter{Introduction}

This package provides two environments, \keyword{algorithmic} and
\keyword{algorithm}, which are designed to be used together but may,
depending on the necessities of the author, be used separately.

The \keyword{algorithmic} environment provides an environment for
describing algorithms and the \keyword{algorithm} environment provides a
float'' wrapper for algorithms (implemented using \keyword{algorithmic}
or some other method at the author's option).  The reason that two
environments are provided is to allow the author maximum flexibility.

This work may be distributed and/or modified under the conditions of the
Foundation (see the file \filename{COPYING} included in this package).
Currently, this package consists of three files: \filename{algorithm.sty},
\filename{algorithmic.sty} and \filename{algorithms.tex} (the source of
this document). This is likely to change in the near future.

Only to force the algorithm counter to reset in the second chapter, I
put an algorithm here!
\begin{algorithm}[h!]
\caption{Copy of Calculate $y = x^n$}
\label{alg3}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0 \vee x \neq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$n < 0$}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow 1 / x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow -n$
\ELSE
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\ENDIF
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}\label{alg:n-is-even2}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE\label{alg:n-is-odd2}
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{algorithm}

\chapter{The \keyword{algorithmic} Environment}
\label{sec:algorithmic-envir}
Within an \keyword{algorithmic} a number of commands for typesetting
popular algorithmic constructs are available.
In general, the commands provided can be arbitrarily nested to
describe quite complex algorithms.
An optional argument to the \verb+\begin{algorithmic}+ statement can be
used to turn on line numbering by giving a positive integer indicating the
required frequency of line numbering.
For example, \verb+\begin{algorithmic}[5]+ would cause every fifth line to
be numbered.

\section{The Simple Statement}

The simple statement takes the form
\begin{verbatim}
\STATE <text>
\end{verbatim}
and is used for simple statements, e.g.
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE $S \leftarrow 0$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would produce
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE $S \leftarrow 0$
\end{algorithmic}
and with line numbering selected for every line using
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $S \leftarrow 0$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would produce
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $S \leftarrow 0$
\end{algorithmic}
For users of earlier versions of \keyword{algorithmic} this construct is
a cause of an incompatibility.
In the earlier version, instead of starting simple statements with the
\verb+\STATE+
command, simple statements were entered as free text and terminated with
\verb+\\+ command.
Unfortunately, this simpler method failed to survive the modifications
necessary for statement numbering.
However, the \verb+\\+ command can still be used to force a line break
within
a simple statement.

\section{The \emph{if-then-else} Construct}

The \emph{if-then-else} construct takes the forms.
\begin{verbatim}
\IF{<condition>} <text> \ENDIF
\IF{<condition>} <text1> \ELSE <text2> \ENDIF
\IF{<condition1>} <text1> \ELSIF{<condition2>} <text2> \ELSE <text3> \ENDIF
\end{verbatim}
In the third of these forms there is no limit placed on the number
of \verb+\ELSIF{<C>}+ that may be used.
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\IF{some condition is true}
\STATE do some processing
\ELSIF{some other condition is true}
\STATE do some different processing
\ELSIF{some even more bizarre condition is met}
\STATE do something else
\ELSE
\STATE do the default actions
\ENDIF
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would produce
\begin{algorithmic}
\IF{some condition is true}
\STATE do some processing
\ELSIF{some other condition is true}
\STATE do some different processing
\ELSIF{some even more bizarre condition is met}
\STATE do something else
\ELSE
\STATE do the default actions
\ENDIF
\end{algorithmic}
with appropriate indentations.

\section{The \emph{for} Loop}

The \emph{for} loop takes the forms.
\begin{verbatim}
\FOR{<condition>} <text> \ENDFOR
\FORALL{<condition>} <text> \ENDFOR
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\FOR{$i=0$ to $10$}
\STATE carry out some processing
\ENDFOR
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\FOR{$i=0$ to $10$}
\STATE carry out some processing
\ENDFOR
\end{algorithmic}
and
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\FORALL{$i$ such that $0\leq i\leq 10$}
\STATE carry out some processing
\ENDFOR
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\FORALL{$i$ such that $0\leq i\leq 10$}
\STATE carry out some processing
\ENDFOR
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The \emph{while} Loop}

The \emph{while} loop takes the form.
\begin{verbatim}
\WHILE{<condition>} <text> \ENDWHILE
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\WHILE{some condition holds}
\STATE carry out some processing
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\WHILE{some condition holds}
\STATE carry out some processing
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The \emph{repeat-until} Loop}

The \emph{repeat-until} loop takes the form.
\begin{verbatim}
\REPEAT <text> \UNTIL{<condition>}
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REPEAT
\STATE carry out some processing
\UNTIL{some condition is met}
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\REPEAT
\STATE carry out some processing
\UNTIL{some condition is met}
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The Infinite Loop}

The infinite loop takes the form.
\begin{verbatim}
\LOOP <text> \ENDLOOP
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\LOOP
\STATE this processing will be repeated forever
\ENDLOOP
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\LOOP
\STATE this processing will be repeated forever
\ENDLOOP
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The Precondition}

The precondition (that must be met if an algorithm is to correctly
execute) takes the form:
\begin{verbatim}
\REQUIRE <text>
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $x \neq 0$ and $n \geq 0$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $x \neq 0$ and $n \geq 0$
\end{algorithmic}

\section{The Postcondition}

The postcondition (that must be met after an algorithm has correctly
executed) takes the form:
\begin{verbatim}
\ENSURE <text>
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\ENSURE $x \neq 0$ and $n \geq 0$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\ENSURE $x \neq 0$ and $n \geq 0$
\end{algorithmic}

\section{Returning Values}

The \keyword{algorithmic} environment offers a special statement for
explicitly returning values in algorithms. It has the syntax:
\begin{verbatim}
\RETURN <text>
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\RETURN $(x+y)/2$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\RETURN $(x+y)/2$
\end{algorithmic}

\section{Printing Messages}

Another feature of the \keyword{algorithmic} environment is that it
currently provides a standard way of printing values (which is an operation
used enough to merit its own keyword). It has the syntax:
\begin{verbatim}
\PRINT <text>
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\PRINT \texttt{Hello, World!''}
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\PRINT \texttt{Hello, World!''}
\end{algorithmic}

Comments may be inserted at most points in an algorithm using the form:
\begin{verbatim}
\COMMENT{<text>}
\end{verbatim}
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE do something \COMMENT{this is a comment}
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE do something \COMMENT{this is a comment}
\end{algorithmic}
Because the mechanisms used to build the various algorithmic structures
make it difficult to use the above mechanism for placing comments at the
end of the first line of a construct, the commands \verb+\IF+,
\verb+\ELSIF+, \verb+\ELSE+, \verb+\WHILE+, \verb+\FOR+,
\verb+\FORALL+, \verb+\REPEAT+
and \verb+\LOOP+ all take an optional argument which will be treated
as a comment to be placed at the end of the line on which they appear.
For example,
\begin{algorithmic}
\REPEAT[this is comment number one]
\IF[this is comment number two]{condition one is met}
\STATE do something
\ELSIF[this is comment number three]{condition two is met}
\STATE do something else
\ELSE[this is comment number four]
\STATE do nothing
\ENDIF
\UNTIL{hell freezes over}
\end{algorithmic}

\section{An Example}

The following example demonstrates the use of the \keyword{algorithmic}
environment to describe a complete algorithm.  The following input
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE[$N$ is odd]
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
will produce
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE[$N$ is odd]
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
which is an algorithm for finding the value of a number taken to a
non-negative power.

\section{Options and Customization}

There is a single option, \keyword{noend}\label{kwd:noend} that may be
invoked when the \texttt{algorithmic} package is loaded.  With this option
invoked the \emph{end} statements are omitted in the output.  This allows
space to be saved in the output document when this is an issue.

\subsection{Changing Indentation}
\label{sec:changing-indentation}
In the spirit of saving vertical space (which is especially important when
submitting a paper for a journal, where space is frequently limited for
authors), the \keyword{algorithmic} environment offers, beginning with the
version released in 2005-05-08, a way to control the amount of indentation
that is used by a given algorithm.

The amount of indentation to be used is given by the command
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{indent=lenght}
\end{verbatim}
where \emph{length} is any valid length used by \TeX. The default value of
the indentation used by the \keyword{algorithmic} environment is $1$ em
(for backward compatibility reasons''), but a value of $2$ em or more is
recommended, depending on the publication. For example, the snippet
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{indent=2em}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $a \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$a$ is even}
\PRINT $a$ is even''
\ELSE
\PRINT $a$ is odd''
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
produces
\algsetup{indent=2em}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $a \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$a$ is even}
\PRINT $a$ is even''
\ELSE
\PRINT $a$ is odd''
\ENDIF
\end{algorithmic}
while
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{indent=5em}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $a \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$a$ is even}
\PRINT $a$ is even''
\ELSE
\PRINT $a$ is odd''
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would produce
\algsetup{indent=5em}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $a \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$a$ is even}
\PRINT $a$ is even''
\ELSE
\PRINT $a$ is odd''
\ENDIF
\end{algorithmic}
\algsetup{indent=1em}

The intended use of this option is to allow the author to omit the
\emph{end} (see Section~\ref{kwd:noend} for details) statements without
loosing readability, by increasing the amount of indentation to a suitable
level.

\subsection{Changing Line Numbering}

As mentioned in Section~\ref{sec:algorithmic-envir} and illustrated in
provides you with the possibility of numbering lines.

Starting with the version released in 2005-07-05, you can now change two
aspects of line numbering: the size of the line numbers (which, by default,
is \verb+\footnotesize+) and the delimiter used to separate the line number
from the code (which, by default, is \verb+:+, i.e., a colon).

You can change the size of the line numbers using the command:
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{linenosize=size}
\end{verbatim}
where \emph{size} is any of the various commands provided by \LaTeX\ to
change the size of the font to be used. Among others, useful values are
\verb+\tiny+, \verb+\scriptsize+, \verb+\footnotesize+ and \verb+\small+.

As another frequently requested feature, you can change the delimiter used
with the line numbers by issuing the command:
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{linenodelimiter=delimiter}
\end{verbatim}
where \emph{delimiter} is any well-formed'' string, including the empty
string. With this command, you can change the colon to a period (\verb+.+)
by issuing the command
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{linenodelimiter=.}
\end{verbatim}
or even omit the delimiter, by specifying the empty string or a space
(\verb+\ +), whatever seems best for your document.

As an example of such commands, the code produced by
\begin{verbatim}
\algsetup{linenosize=\small,
linenodelimiter=.}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $i \leftarrow 10$
\RETURN $i$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{verbatim}
would be something like
\algsetup{linenosize=\small,
linenodelimiter=.}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\STATE $i \leftarrow 10$
\RETURN $i$
\end{algorithmic}
\algsetup{linenosize=\footnotesize,
linenodelimiter=:}

\subsection{Customization}

In order to facilitate the use of this package with foreign languages, all
of the words in the output are produced via redefinable macro commands.
The default definitions of these macros are:
\begin{verbatim}
\newcommand{\algorithmicrequire}{\textbf{Require:}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicensure}{\textbf{Ensure:}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicend}{\textbf{end}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicif}{\textbf{if}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicthen}{\textbf{then}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicelse}{\textbf{else}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicelsif}{\algorithmicelse\ \algorithmicif}
\newcommand{\algorithmicendif}{\algorithmicend\ \algorithmicif}
\newcommand{\algorithmicfor}{\textbf{for}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicforall}{\textbf{for all}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicdo}{\textbf{do}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicendfor}{\algorithmicend\ \algorithmicfor}
\newcommand{\algorithmicwhile}{\textbf{while}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicendwhile}{\algorithmicend\ \algorithmicwhile}
\newcommand{\algorithmicloop}{\textbf{loop}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicendloop}{\algorithmicend\ \algorithmicloop}
\newcommand{\algorithmicrepeat}{\textbf{repeat}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicuntil}{\textbf{until}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicprint}{\textbf{print}}
\newcommand{\algorithmicreturn}{\textbf{return}}
\end{verbatim}

argument command macro which may also be redefined.
The default definition is
\begin{verbatim}
\newcommand{\algorithmiccomment}[1]{\{#1\}}
\end{verbatim}
and another option that may be interesting for users familiar with C-like
languages is to redefine the comments to be
\begin{verbatim}
\renewcommand{\algorithmiccomment}[1]{//#1}
\end{verbatim}

Comments produced this way would be like this:
\renewcommand{\algorithmiccomment}[1]{//#1}
\begin{algorithmic}
\STATE $i \leftarrow i +1$ \COMMENT{Increments $i$}
\end{algorithmic}
This second way to present comments may become the default in a future
version of the package.

\section{The \keyword{algorithm} Environment}

\subsection{General}
\begin{algorithm}
\caption{Calculate $y = x^n$}
\label{alg1}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0 \vee x \neq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$n < 0$}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow 1 / x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow -n$
\ELSE
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\ENDIF
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE[$N$ is odd]
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{algorithm}

When placed within the text without being encapsulated in a floating
environment \texttt{algorithmic} environments may be split over a page
boundary greatly detracting from their appearance.
In addition, it is useful to have algorithms numbered for reference
and for lists of algorithms to be appended to the list of contents.
The \texttt{algorithm} environment is meant to address these concerns
by providing a floating environment for algorithms.
For example, the input text
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{algorithm}
\caption{Calculate $y = x^n$}
\label{alg1}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0 \vee x \neq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$n < 0$}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow 1 / x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow -n$
\ELSE
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\ENDIF
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE[$N$ is odd]
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{algorithm}
\end{verbatim}
produces Algorithm~\ref{alg1} which is a slightly modified version of
the earlier algorithm for determining the value of a number taken to an
integer power.
In this case, provided the power may be negative provided the number is
not zero.

The command \verb+\listofalgorithms+ may be used to produce a list
of algorithms as part of the table contents as shown at the beginning of
this document.
An auxiliary file with a suffix of \texttt{.loa} is produced when this
feature is used.

\subsection{Options}

The appearance of the typeset algorithm may be changed by use of the
options: \texttt{plain}, \texttt{boxed} or \texttt{ruled} during the
The default option is \texttt{ruled}.

The numbering of algorithms can be influenced by providing the name of
the document component within which numbering should be recommenced.
The legal values for this option are: \texttt{part}, \texttt{chapter},
\texttt{section}, \texttt{subsection}, \texttt{subsubsection}
or \texttt{nothing}.
The default value is \texttt{nothing} which causes algorithms to be
numbered sequentially throughout the document.

\subsection{Customization}

In order to facilitate the use of this package with foreign languages,
methods have been provided to facilitate the necessary modifications.

The title used in the caption within \texttt{algorithm} environment
can be set by use of the standard \verb+\floatname+ command which is
provided as part of the \texttt{float} package which was used to
implement this package.
For example,
\begin{verbatim}
\floatname{algorithm}{Procedure}
\end{verbatim}
would cause \textbf{Procedure} to be used instead of \textbf{Algorithm}
within the caption of algorithms.

In a manner analogous to that available for the built in floating
environments, the heading used for the list of algorithms may be changed
by redefining the command \verb+listalgorithmname+.
The default definition for this command is
\begin{verbatim}
\newcommand{\listalgorithmname}{List of Algorithms}
\end{verbatim}

\section{Labels and References in Algorithms}

With the release of 2005-07-05, now \keyword{algorithmic} accepts labels
and references to specific lines of a given algorithm, so you don't have to
hardcode the line numbers yourself when trying to explain what the code
does in your texts.  Thanks to Arnaud Legrand for the suggestion and patch
for this highly missed feature.

An example of its use is shown in Algorithm~\ref{alg2}.
\begin{algorithm}[h!]
\caption{Calculate $y = x^n$}
\label{alg2}
\begin{algorithmic}[1]
\REQUIRE $n \geq 0 \vee x \neq 0$
\ENSURE $y = x^n$
\STATE $y \Leftarrow 1$
\IF{$n < 0$}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow 1 / x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow -n$
\ELSE
\STATE $X \Leftarrow x$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow n$
\ENDIF
\WHILE{$N \neq 0$}
\IF{$N$ is even}\label{alg:n-is-even}
\STATE $X \Leftarrow X \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N / 2$
\ELSE\label{alg:n-is-odd}
\STATE $y \Leftarrow y \times X$
\STATE $N \Leftarrow N - 1$
\ENDIF
\ENDWHILE
\end{algorithmic}
\end{algorithm}
See that, in line~\ref{alg:n-is-even}, we deal with the case of $N$ being
even, while, in line~\ref{alg:n-is-odd}, we give treatment to the case of
$N$ being odd.

\backmatter
\printindex

\end{document}