# [OS X TeX] ae character

Tue Feb 15 13:30:38 CET 2011

```On Feb 14, 2011, at 8:11 PM, Michael Sharpe wrote:

> Ligature substitution is font dependent, governed by the tfm. You can force ae to appear as a ligature (if present in the font, which it most certainly is in the kpfonts loaded by the template) by writing it as \ae, but most font tfms I've looked at don't declare that all ae pairs should be rendered as the a_e ligature.

That's 'cause \ae isn't a ligature, but a diphthong, a joining of two letters to indicate a particular sound --- a ligature is a joining of two or more letters for stylistic or technical reasons.

So one should only use \ae (and \oe) where it is linguistically appropriate.

William

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